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Bridge Research Paper

Secondly, there is no universally accepted definition ofminority languages. In order to clarify the meaning of discrimination on the basis of languagethis term should be defined as any distinction, exclusion, limitation orpreference which, being based on language, has the purpose or effect ofnullifying or impairing equality. The terms used in article 27indicate that the persons designed to be protected are those who belong to agroup and who share in common a culture, a religion andor a languagetheyneed not be citizens of the state party a state party may not, therefore,restrict the rights under article 27 to its citizens alone just as they neednot be nationals or citizens, they need not be permanent residents.

This balances the competinginterests of linguistic diversity and national integration as well as socialcohesion. Rule 34 of the rules of procedure of the achpr affirmsthis provision by stating that the working languages of the commission and ofall its institutions shall be those of the organization of african unity. This stage is often precipitated and facilitated by the introduction ofeducation in the majority language.

The african problemsassociated with the protection of minority languages arguably have theirgenesis in the colonial domination of africa. Five points can be drawn fromthe above discourse. Further, only south africa protects sign language as a language.

Accordingly, the dissertation will use general comments, resolutionsand decisions of treaty bodies as 2. Thisincludes using their language in public and in private. Firstly, the term minority languagecan be defined as proposed in chapter 2.

Article 13 obliges states toguarantee the use of minority languages in economic and social life thatincludes public and private companies and hospitals. Article 17 of thecultural charter for africa recognizes the need to develop african languageswith a view of ensuring cultural advancement and accelerating economic andsocial development. It would therefore follow that a minority language is a language spoken byethnic, religious and linguistic groups (citizens and or non-citizens) thathave a sense of solidarity, are numerically inferior and non-dominant.

Every individual shallbe entitled to equal protection of the law. This is important because the internet is one of thegreatest sources of information in the present day and minority languagespeakers who are not proficient in the english, french, portuguese, arabic andspanish can only access such information if it is packaged in their language. However, the protection of minority languages canoften be gleaned from either express treaty provisions relating to languagerights or can be implied from other rights. Every individual shall have the right to receive information. Arts 25 of the achpr, 7 ofthe acrwc and 4 of the african youth charter.


Towards the Human Rights Protection of Minority Languages in Africa - GlobaLex


The basic research question for this paper is: 'Are minority languages adequately ... This article intends to bridge that gap. It explores the nature and scope of protection ... This paper is not intended to be and cannot be the final word on the protection of ... Hauser Home / Global Research Tools ... ·

Bridge Research Paper

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Bridge Research Paper Secondly, courts are likely going to declare the achpr a self executing treaty, Article8 obliges states to make available a substantial part of pre-school, primary,secondary, technical. When literally translatedinto another language, Thirdly, there exist language rights norms atthe global and african levels that protect minority languages. See the hague recommendationsregarding the education rights of national minorities. Universaldeclaration of human rights, 2, 24 and 26 of the iccpr, article 2 of theinternational cescr and 1 and 7 of the cmw. This is buttressed by the argument for language preservation by the united nationseducational, scientific and cultural organisation (unesco) that theworlds languages represent an extraordinary wealth of human creativity. States can provide betterstandards than these in national constitutions and legislation. Articles 2 of the achpr, 3 ofthe acrwc and 2 of the african youth charter. Research on humans' data is human research.
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    These rights and obligations should beperceived as international minimum standards. These provisions potentiallypromote minority languages in three respects. In this environment, linguisticdiversity becomes a characteristic to ignore as far as possible. It is hoped that this discourse will engender avisibility of minority language rights issues in africa and will accentuateresearch and campaigns on law and policy reforms. Binding treaty are adopted and ratifiedunder the united nations and regional human rights systems and interpreted bytreaty bodies established by them through general comments, resolutions anddecisions.

    Articles 18 of the achpr,18(1) of the acrwc and 8 of the african youth charter. The commission shall also take intoconsideration, as subsidiary measures to determine the principles of law, othergeneral or special international conventions, laying down rules expresslyrecognized by member states of the organization of african unity, africanpractices consistent with international norms on human and peoples rights,customs generally accepted as law, general principles of law recognized byafrican states as well as legal precedents and doctrine. Losing a language,irrespective of the number of speakers of that language, deprives humanity of apart of our universal human heritage insofar as the language embodies a uniqueworldview and knowledge of local ecosystems. Put differently, names are an inseparable part of the family, culture and thecommunity. Fifth,the right to use minority languages can also be implied from the right to workunder equitable and satisfactory conditions implied in these rights isthat minority language speakers have a right to access civil society even ifthey may not be fluent in the official language.

    Theseprovisions potentially protect minority languages in that states may developpolicies on minority languages or choose to introduce minority languages ineducation. Secondly, official language statusaccords language rights to a language together with its dialects. Article 60 empowers the africancommission to draw inspiration from international human rights law in theexecution of its functions. Post-colonial africa saw african governments maintaining and extending the position of european languagesin political, economic, educational and social systems. Thirdly, african state parties have anobligation to develop a national language policy. A group numerically inferiorto the rest of the population of a state, and in a non-dominant position whosemembers being nationals of the state poses ethnic, religious or linguisticcharacteristics differing from those of the rest of the population and show, ifonly implicitly, a sense of solidarity, directed towards preserving their culture,traditions, religions and language. One weakness of the implied rights theoryis that implied rights do not precisely stipulate the exact scope of protectionafforded to minority languages. Because of theprotection bestowed by official language status, it is not a minority language. Article 14 of the draftdeclaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. There is,therefore, every reason to clarify the position of language rights in variousafrican states and in international human rights law, and to analyze theexperience of the management of multilingualism in diverse societies.

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    This approach was adopted bythe european court of human rights in the cases of (1993) 509 u. Withrespect, pejics concerns are more apparent and of an academic interest thanreal. Minority languages may also be usedduring religious worship or other religious practices, during a private part ofa marriage ceremony, in private economic activities, within private groups andorganizations and by political associations or parties. Implied in this right is that minority languagesspeakers should enjoy similar rights with majority language speakers. The liberal approach is arobust way of dealing with africas linguistic situation and will reasonablyaccommodate the view that the solution to africas failure to realize humanrights does not lie in making new treaties but implementing the ones thatalready exist Buy now Bridge Research Paper

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    Economicimperialism has gone hand in hand with linguistic imperialism as people abandontheir mother tongues in favor of the globally dominant english, spanish,arabic, chinese and russian. Namibia, american declaration of the rights and duties of man, 1& 8 of the american convention on human rights and 3 of the additionalprotocol to the american convention on human rights in the area of economic,social and cultural rights. The normative content of minority language rights under regionalhuman rights systems only the inter-american and europeansystems of human right will be discussed here because a discussion of theafrican system will be done in chapter 3. Firstly, the united nations human rights instruments donot define a minority language Bridge Research Paper Buy now

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    It has been argued that this may help the commissionin carrying out its tasks in that it is not only restricted to the africancharter, but is open to a wide range of human rights principles to enable itadopt the best possible interpretation of the provisions of the africancharter. Fernand de varennes states that members of linguistic minorities (as well asall other individuals) have the right to use their language of choice inprivate activities involving expression. Article 60 empowers the africancommission to draw inspiration from international human rights law in theexecution of its functions. Children ofmigrant workers and indigenous peoples have a right to be taught in theirmother tongue Buy Bridge Research Paper at a discount

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    According to capotorti, a minority can be identified bynumerical inferiority, non-dominance and solidarity. Minoritylanguages are used on radio in angola, burkina faso, chad, congo-brazzaville, cote divoire, drc, djibouti, equatorial guinea, eritrea, ethiopia, gabon, ghana, kenya, mali, mozambique, namibia, niger, nigeria, senegal, sierra leone, togo, uganda and zimbabwe. In education, european-styleeducation was introduced in european languages in african communities over thefirst decades of the colonial era. Implied in this right is that minority languagesspeakers should enjoy similar rights with majority language speakers. An understanding of the concept of minority is therefore significant tounderstanding this definition of a minority language Buy Online Bridge Research Paper

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    Rule 34 of the rules of procedure of the achpr affirmsthis provision by stating that the working languages of the commission and ofall its institutions shall be those of the organization of african unity. You should only run this if youd like to find and report more bugs than usual. The convention further obliges statesparties to submit periodic reports which are examined by a committee of experts. Ngugiwa thiongo referred to language as the soul of culture. Secondly, there is no universally accepted definition ofminority languages.

    A persistentnon-dominant position of the group in political, social, and cultural mattersis the common feature of the minority. These rights and obligations should beperceived as international minimum standards Buy Bridge Research Paper Online at a discount

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    Thequestion that inevitably arises is what is the nature of protection afforded tominority languages by article 27? Pejic first, by employing the wordsin those states in which. The african commission can use the results of suchactivities to formulate and lay down principles and rules aimed at solvinglegal problems relating to minority languages upon which african governmentscan base their legislation. It is interesting to notethat the ethiopian and eritrean constitutions provide for equality of alllanguages. In this sense, linguistic diversity becomes symbolic of cultural diversity, andthe maintenance or revitalization of language signals ongoing or renewedvalidity of the culture associated with that language Bridge Research Paper For Sale

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    The normative content of minority language rights under theunited nations system there is no specific united nations humanrights instrument exclusively devoted to the protection of minority languages. This can go along way in resolving the normativedeficiency problem. This balances the competinginterests of linguistic diversity and national integration as well as socialcohesion. The minoritylanguage may be remembered by a residual group of language speakers, but itis no longer spoken as a wider language of communication. For example, the right to be informed of any criminalcharges in a language that you understand and to an interpreter during trial isa general right that can be exercised by anyone irrespective of whether theybelong to a minority group or not For Sale Bridge Research Paper

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    Colonialism notonly brought european languages to africa, it also sought to invent indigenouslanguages, and to establish hierarchies between them, in which the europeanlanguages were hegemonic, as part of the process of constructing colonialstates, spaces, and societies. The nation state argument is notsustainable because it overlooks two salient points. Closes ticket when a directory authority is using a bandwidth file to obtain the bandwidth values that will be included in the next vote, serve this bandwidth file at torstatus-votenextbandwidth. Minority languages are used as languages of instruction in adult literacyprograms in angola, botswana, burkina faso, chad, congo-brazzaville, democraticrepublic of congo, eritrea, ethiopia, gabon, ghana, guinea-bissau, guinea-conakry, kenya, cote divore, malawi, mali, mauritius, namibia, nigeria, senegal, sierra leone, togo, uganda and zimbabwe Sale Bridge Research Paper

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